Webmaster Tips

Tips, tricks and tools to manage your hosting, web server, domain names, websites, web analytics.

Network Basics

IP Address

An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique code that identifies a piece of equipment connected to a network. These addresses are used in messages between network devices like the network or wireless card in your computer, the equipment from your ISP (internet service provider), and all pieces of equipment between your machine and the one your computer needs to talk to.

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Redirect non-www to www domain with htaccess

DNS

Suppose you have a website example.com, it can be accessed in two ways.

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Name Servers and Domain Naming System

DNS

Before the domain name system was implemented, computers used to connect to each other via IP addresses. The domain name system attaches a unique name to this number so that site visitors can easily remember and return to web addresses.

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DNS Records - NS, A, MX, CNAME, SPF

DNS

DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is used to point memorable domain name towards the IP address of the server. This allows you to change web hosting without changing your domain name. Each website has a specific IP address, and the DNS records pair that IP address to the domain.

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MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is a standard which was proposed by Bell Communications in 1991 in order to expand limited capabilities of email.

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Base64 Character Encoding

The Base64 is a binary-to-text encoding that represents binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation. Each Base64 digit represents exactly 6 bits of data. Therefore, three 8-bit bytes (total of 24 bits) can be represented by four 6-bit Base64 digits.

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ASCII Character Set and HTML Codes

ASCII stands for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII was the first character set (encoding standard) used between computers on the Internet.

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How to Add and Use Google reCaptcha v3

Google's reCaptcha v3 helps you detect abusive traffic on your website without user interaction. Instead of showing a challenge, it returns a score so you can choose the most appropriate action for your website.

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How to Host Website Using Vesta Control Panel

VestaCP

VestaCP is a free and open-source alternative to cPanel. After installing Vesta Control Panel on your Linux server, point your domain name or subdomain to your server's Name Server records.

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Configure Your Server in VestaCP

VestaCP

Vesta Control Panel gets installed with other software as well.

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How to Setup Email Server

Every mail server that lets you send and receive email with a local mail client has three separate software components.

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Rewrite Rules Using htaccess

The Apache module mod_rewrite allows you to rewrite URL requests that come into your server. It is based on a regular-expression parser. When the url in your browser's location bar stays the same for a request, it is an internal rewrite, when the url changes, it is an external redirection.

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Regular Expressions Simple Guide

A regular expression is a pattern that "matches" strings that have a particular form.

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Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed. IPv4 is described in IETF publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition (RFC 760, January 1980).

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Top Color Schemes for Your Website

Choosing the right color scheme is essential to your website. Your layout and fonts should be developed along with your color scheme. Color scheme includes color palette of 2 to 5 colors, used in combination.

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ISO 8859-1 Character Set and HTML Codes

ISO-8859-1 is the default character in HTML 4.01. The first part of ISO-8859-1 (entity numbers from 0-127) is the original ASCII character-set. It contains numbers, upper and lowercase English letters, and some special characters.

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Server Response Codes

When you visit a web page, your computer’s web browser communicates with the web server of the website. Your web browser, also known as the client, submits a request to the web server for web page to be delivered. The web server always returns a reply in the form of response code or status codes.

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How to Find Spam Email Generating PHP Files

By simply adding following lines into your php.ini file, you can track down any outgoing spam using PHP. This feature is available since PHP 5.3.0 version.

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How to Find and Edit php.ini File Using SSH

This is very simple way to find php.ini file to make changes. You need to have access to these files, and SSH login.

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MathJax Tutorial Reference and Examples

MathJax is an open-source JavaScript display engine for LaTeX, MathML, and AsciiMath notation that works in all browsers. MathJax uses web-based fonts to produce high-quality typesetting that scales and prints at full resolution.

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Top Google Fonts for Your Website

As website developer, you always need fonts. Use of good fonts makes the website look good. But, which fonts to use? There's always some confusion in mind. Let's see top Google fonts you can consider using for your next project.

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Model View Controller (MVC) Pattern

The model view controller pattern is the most used pattern for today’s world web applications. The MVC pattern separates an application in 3 parts: Model, View and Controller.

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9 Google Searching Tips and Tricks

Everyday, most (or even all) of internet users search the internet cyber world about almost anything and everything under the world. There is more effective way to search using google and find relevant information much more quickly.

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File Access Permissions in Linux

Permissions are access rights, for files and directories, given to specific users or groups of users. Permissions control the ability of the users to view or modify the contents of the filesystem. Linux and other unix systems work in similar way.

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5 Basic Types of Webhosting

Web hosting service will allow your website to be accessible through internet. Web hosting companies provide space (usually measured in GB) and other facilities depending upon the package.

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Web Server Configuration: htaccess File

A .htaccess file is a short name for hypertext access. It is a directory-level configuration file used by Apache-based web servers and allows for decentralized management of web server configuration.

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Fix Network & Internet Connection Using IPCONFIG

If you are facing problems with your internet connection, or if you are not able to open websites even though internet is connected, or if there are some network or DNS problems, then in Windows 8, 7 or Vista, you can use ipconfig command and try to solve your problem.

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Google Page Speed Insights (PSI)

PageSpeed Insights (PSI) reports on the performance of a page on both mobile and desktop devices, and provides suggestions on how that page may be improved. PSI provides both lab and field data about a page.

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Google URL Inspection Tool

Search Console

The URL Inspection tool provides information about Google's indexed version of a specific page or URL. You can inspect both AMP and non-AMP URLs. If the page has alternate versions, the tool also provides information about the canonical version. This tool describes the most recently indexed version of a page, not the live version on the web.

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Index Coverage Status Report

Search Console

This report shows the indexing state of all URLs that Google has visited, or tried to visit, in your property. The summary page shows the results grouped by status (error, warning, or valid) and reason. You can click on a table row to see all URLs with the same status or reason and see more details about the issue.

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Render Blocking Resources

Search Console

There are three types of render-blocking URLs: scripts, stylesheets, and HTML imports. These URLs block the first paint of your page. Your goal should be to reduce the impact of these render-blocking URLs by inlining critical resources, deferring non-critical resources, and removing anything unused.

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Search Console Performance Report

Search Console

The Performance report shows important metrics about how your site performs in Google Search results: how often it comes up; average position in search results; click through rate; and any special features (such as rich results) associated with your results.

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Domain Keys Identified Mail (DKIM)

Email DNS
Domain Keys Identified Mail (DKIM)

DKIM validates a domain name identity that is associated with a message through cryptographic authentication. DKIM attaches a new domain name identifier to a message's header to validate authorization for its presence. The identifier is independent of any other identifier in the message.

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How MX Records Work?

Email DNS

When you send an e-mail, first your e-mail client software forwards the message to an e-mail server. When an e-mail message is sent through the Internet, the sending mail transfer agent (MTA) queries the DNS for MX records of recipient's domain name.

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Reverse DNS (rDNS)

DNS

Reverse DNS (rDNS) is the opposite of the DNS. The DNS is queried for the IP address of a certain hostname. In reverse DNS, the hostname is returned for a certain IP address.

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Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance (DMARC)

Email DNS
Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance (DMARC)

When an email is sent or received, there is no clear indication that the email is authentic or if it was sent from a validated sender address or domain. One way to improve email security is the DMARC standard.

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Sender Policy Framework (SPF)

Email DNS

The Sender Policy Framework (SPF) prevents sender address forgery. It protects the envelope sender address, which is used for the delivery of messages. SPF allows the owner of a domain to specify mail sending policy like which mail servers they use to send mail from their domain.

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